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Human rights are much talked about and much written about, in academic legal literature as well as in political and other social sciences and the general political debate. This book argues that the universality of basic human rights is one of the values of the concept of rights. It points out the risk of a certain “inflation” caused by the current habit of talking so much and so often about human rights and of using them as a basis for claims of various kinds. These rights, their understanding and interpretation may need to become more “purist” to ensure that universal human rights as a concept survive. Another chapter concentrates on the analysis of the frames of “EU protected human rights” from the perspective of effective implementation. Further, the book not only deals with the complicated relations between the EU and international law, but also seeks to show the horizontal effect. To that end, the fears and hopes of the member states and interest groups are categorized and commented on. Lastly, the gaps in theory and practice are addressed, current trends related to implementation are pointed out, and suggestions are made concerning how to make the best out of the Charter.