This book aims to give state of the art in several domains of cultural heritage in which Nanosciences allow fundamental breakthrough. The first part of the book concerns nanostructured materials in ancient artifacts. Understanding their nature and formation processes bring new insight in the apprehension of technical level of ancient societies but can also inspire the design of new materials. The second part is dedicated to the understanding of materials. This crucial issue in material science today, for cultural heritage, needs to perform specific characterization techniques and technologies, but also to create tailored analytical strategies. Part three presents new methods, processes and materials at nano levels that can bring innovative solutions to conservation and restoration issues, linked with the understanding of the alteration processes involved at different scales.