This book is a fascinating overview of one of the first pharmacogenetic traits to be identified as responsible for genetic variation in response to drugs — the understanding of the arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) is linked to many important therapeutic areas, particularly tuberculosis and also cancer. NATs have been important in the metabolism of established anti-tubercular drugs and also in carcinogenesis and susceptibility to bladder cancer. The reach of these enzymes spans pharmacology and therapeutics as well as toxicology and pharmacogenetics. The NAT genes are encoded in a highly polymorphic region of the human genome which has been explored for fine mapping in molecular anthropological studies.The book takes a wide ranging approach covering all aspects of the arylamine N-acetyltransferases from genetics to the chemistry and structural biology of the enzymes in the organisms in which they are found, from humans to bacteria and fungi where they appear to have distinct roles. The coverage is by experts in the field from across the globe.